A glovebox from MBRAUN is used for the battery assembly and the experiments like STM-experiments (Scanning Tunneling Microscope) which can be performed in an inert Ar-atmosphere. Beneath the box, one can see the STM-controller, as well as a bipotentiostat and a biscangenerator. Those devices are used to control the potentials/currents of the STM-tip and the sample simultaneously.

 

The STM in the inner part of the glovebox is used to study model battery electrodes, such as highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) or V2O5-single crystals, under battery operation conditions. This allows us to study surface processes, like the Solid-Electrolyte-Interphase (SEI) formation or intercalation sites of Li+ / Na+ / Mg2+-ions into the electrode material on atomic scales.

 

Four GAMRY Interface 1000 potentiostats are used for electrochemical battery testing and characterization. Experiments, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge/discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiostatic intermittent titration technique (PITT), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) are measured with these devices.

 

Swagelok-cells are used to conduct the above-mentioned experiments, when they are connected to the GAMRY potentiostats.

 

An ultrasonic horn immersed into a solution is used to prepare nanostructered materials via a sonochemical route.